In the Name of Allah, The Most Gracious, The Most Merciful…

You've just finished your Isha prayer, and your mom casually asks if you prayed the "wajib al witr" prayer. You shake your head, replying, "No, mom, I'll pray tomorrow as I am feeling very tired." Your mom persists, stating, "But witr is wajib." You scratch your head because, to your knowledge, only the five daily prayers are called obligatory. Feeling fatigued, you explain, "Mom, I'm really exhausted right now. Since witr isn't fardh, I thought I'd pray it later when I'm more awake."

Here's the deal: in Usul al Fiqh, amidst various madhaib, things get a bit tangled. The terms 'fard' and 'wajib' sometimes swap hats, and it can leave you feeling lost in a word maze.

In this article, we will delve into the meaning of "Hukm" in Fiqh, particularly focusing on its different types and classifications, thereby understanding the usage of different terms.

What is Hukm?

Linguistically, "Al-Hukm" in Arabic conveys the notion of judgment, or governance.

Technically, in Islamic jurisprudence (Usul al-Fiqh), "Al-Hukm" is a divine commandment from Allah, directed towards those subject to Islamic law, known as Mukallaf (مكلف) by way of demanding them to do or not to do something or giving them a choice for its performance, or declaring a thing to be the cause or condition or impediment.

  • Mukallaf: As individuals grow and mature, they gradually take on different levels of responsibility in their religious duties. This concept is known as becoming Mukallaf or obligated. For instance, consider a child who is under the age of ten. At this stage, they are not obligated to perform acts of worship such as prayer or fasting. Therefore, they are not considered Mukallaf for these actions.However, once a person reaches puberty, they are required to observe certain religious obligations, including praying and fasting. At this point, they become Mukallaf for these actions, meaning they are accountable and obligated to fulfill them.

Types of Hukm

When discussing Hukm, it's important to understand its two main types: Hukm Al-Taklifi and Hukm Al-Wada'i.

1) Hukm Al-Taklifi (Defining Law): It means when the communication (from Allah or Prophet (ﷺ)) is made in the form of a demand to do or not to do something or it is left optional. This type of ruling pertains to individuals who are obligated to adhere to specific commands or prohibitions. For instance, Allah says in the Quran

Do not go near adultery. (Quran 17:32)
And perform As-Salât (Iqâmat-as-Salât), and give Zakât (Quran 2:43)

Muslims are required to perform the Salat and pay the Zakat, while they are prohibited from adultery. In these cases, the hukm stands independently, without relying on any external factors.

2) Hukm Al-Wadh'i (Rulings Concerning Preconditions & Collective Situations): It means when the communication (from Allah or Prophet (ﷺ)) related to acts of the subjects in a manner that is declaratory. The effect of this Hukm may or may not be within the ability of the subject with respect to commission or omission. It is linked to a ”factor”, if it is present then Hukm is there and if it is absent, hukm isn’t there. This type of ruling is based on conditions and prerequisites that establish personal or communal obligations. For example, performing wudhu (ablution) is a prerequisite for Salat, sighting the moon establishes the beginning of Ramadan, and having witnesses is necessary for a marriage contract.

Classifciation Of Hukm Al-Taklifi

Hukm can be classified into the following categories:

  1. Fard or Wajib (Obligatory)
  2. Halal/Mubah (Permissible)
  3. Makrooh (Detested)
  4. Haraam (Prohibited)
  5. Mandoob (Recommended)

1) FARD (Obligatory)

An obligatory act whose performance is rewarded and whose nonperformance is punished

Now, let's understand what is Fard (obligation). Fard is something obligatory, it is that which the Lawgiver (Allah) has enjoined by way of it being compulsory. Examples include:

  • The Five daily prayers
  • Obedience to Parents
  • Fasting in Ramadan
  • Paying Zakah
  • Performing Hajj

It is obligatory to do it, and sinful to neglect it.

There's a distinction made by some scholars between Fard and Wajib, but most agree they're essentially the same: both are obligatory. However, some scholars differentiate based on the certainty of the evidence.

In al-Ihkam fi Usul al-Ahkam by al-Amidi (1/99) it says: There is no difference between fard and wajib according to our companions (Shafi‘is). The companions of Abu Hanifah used the word fard to refer to that which is proven to be obligatory on the basis of definitive evidence, and the word wajib to refer to that which is proven to be obligatory on the basis of ambiguous evidence. … The more correct view is that which was mentioned by our companions, which is that the difference in the way of establishing the ruling, so that the ruling itself becomes definitive or otherwise, does not mean that there is a difference in the implication.”

The companions of Abu Hanifah (Hanafis) say that fard is that which is proven to be obligatory on the basis of definitive evidence (Qat’iee, which means Quran or Hadith Mutawatir), and wajib is that which is proven to be obligatory on the basis of ambiguous evidence (Dhanni, which means Hadith Ahad). (Qawati‘ al-Adillah (1/131))

According to Hanafis, the consequence of denying the obligation of Fard is considered disbelief, while denying the obligation of Wajib does not lead to disbelief.

It's worth noting that this distinction between Dhanni and Qatiee, based on Hadith Ahad and Mutawatir Hadith, is viewed as a newly invented matter by some scholars, attributed to the Mutazilah school of thought.

Both Hanafis as well as majority agree that Fard and wajib are binding.

Types of FARD

According to Time

  • Fard Mutlaq: Absolute obligations not bound by time, such as the expiation (kaffara) for breaking an oath, which can be fulfilled at any time.
  • Fard Muqayyad: Obligations bound by time, such as the five daily prayers, which must be performed within specific time frames.

Classification according to "fard mutlaq" refers to obligations that are absolute and not restricted to a specific time. Here are some examples of obligations falling under this classification:

  1. Expiation for Breaking an Oath: When a person breaks an oath, they are required to offer expiation (kaffarah). However, the timing for fulfilling this obligation is not restricted to a particular moment. Instead, they have the flexibility to fulfill it whenever it is feasible for them.
  2. Repayment of Missed Obligations: If someone misses an obligatory act of worship, such as a prayer or fasting, they are obligated to make it up (qada) at a later time. The timing for performing the makeup act is not fixed and can be done whenever convenient for the individual.
  3. Fulfillment of Vows: Fulfilling vows (nadhr) made to Allah also falls under fard mutlaq. While the vow must be fulfilled, there is no specific timeframe within which it must be accomplished.

Classification according to "fard muqayyad" pertains to obligations that are obligatory and are bound by a specific time frame. Here are some examples of obligations falling under this classification:

  1. Five Daily Prayers: The five daily prayers (Salah) are obligatory and are bound by specific time frames. Each prayer has a designated time within which it must be performed. For example, Fajr prayer must be performed before dawn, Dhuhr prayer during the midday, Asr prayer in the afternoon, Maghrib prayer just after sunset, and Isha prayer during the night.
  2. Fasting in Ramadan: Fasting during the month of Ramadan is obligatory and is bound by a specific time frame. Muslims are required to abstain from food, drink, and other worldly desires from dawn until sunset throughout the entire month of Ramadan.
  3. Performance of Hajj: Performing the pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) is obligatory upon those who are physically and financially capable. However, it is bound by a specific time frame, as Hajj can only be performed during the Islamic month of Dhu al-Hijjah, specifically during the days of Hajj.

According to Extent

  • Muhaddad: Amount or extent of an act is fixed by Allah
  • Ghayr Muhaddad: Amount or extent of an act is not fixed by Allah

Classification according to "muhaddad" refers to the type of obligation where the amount or extent of an act is fixed by Allah. Here are some examples of obligations falling under this classification:

  1. Fixed Number of Units in Prayer: For instance, in the obligatory prayers (Salah), the number of units (rak'ahs) is specified. For Fajr, it's two rak'ahs; for Dhuhr, it's four rak'ahs; for Asr, it's four rak'ahs; for Maghrib, it's three rak'ahs; and for Isha, it's four rak'ahs. These numbers are fixed by Allah and cannot be altered.
  2. Fixed Percentage for Zakah: The obligation of Zakah entails giving a fixed percentage (2.5%) of one's wealth if it meets the conditions (such as reaching the Nisab threshold) and remains in one's possession for a lunar year.
  3. Specific Acts of Worship: Acts like fasting in Ramadan, where the obligation is to fast for the entire month from dawn until sunset, fall under this classification.

Classification according to "ghayr muhaddad" pertains to obligations where the amount or extent of an act is not fixed by Allah. Here are some examples of obligations falling under this classification:

  1. Spending on Family: While it's obligatory for a person to spend on their family, such as providing food, clothing, and shelter, the exact amount or extent of this spending is not specified by Allah. It depends on various factors like one's financial capability, family size, and needs.
  2. Expiation for Breaking an Oath: When a person breaks an oath, they have the option to expiate for it by either feeding or clothing a certain number of needy individuals or fasting for a specified number of days.

According to Subject

  • Fard Ayn (Individual obligation)
  • Fard Kifayah (communal obligation)

Classification according to "fard ayn" refers to obligations that are individually obligatory on every accountable Muslim. These obligations are incumbent upon each individual, and the responsibility cannot be transferred to others. Here are some examples of obligations falling under this classification:

  1. Performing the Five Daily Prayers: Each accountable Muslim is obligated to perform the five daily prayers (Salah) regularly and with proper adherence to the prescribed actions and times.
  2. Observing Fasting in Ramadan: Fasting during the month of Ramadan is obligatory for every adult Muslim who is physically and mentally capable of fasting and not exempted due to specific conditions such as illness or travel.
  3. Payment of Zakat: Paying the obligatory almsgiving (Zakat) is an individual obligation on every eligible Muslim whose wealth meets or exceeds the Nisab threshold and remains in their possession for a full lunar year.
  4. Performance of Hajj: Performing the pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) is obligatory for every physically and financially capable Muslim at least once in their lifetime.
  5. Learning and Understanding Basic Tenets of Islam: Acquiring knowledge of fundamental Islamic beliefs, practices, and obligations is individually obligatory to ensure proper understanding and adherence to Islam.

Classification according to "fard kifayah" refers to obligations that are communal or collective in nature. Unlike fard ayn, where the obligation rests individually on every accountable Muslim, fard kifayah obligations are fulfilled collectively by the Muslim community. If a sufficient number of individuals from the community fulfill the obligation, the rest of the community is relieved of the responsibility. However, if the obligation is neglected entirely by the community, then all members of the community become sinful.

Here are some examples of obligations falling under the classification of fard kifayah:

  1. Performing Funeral Prayers (Salat al-Janazah): It is obligatory for a sufficient number of Muslims to perform the funeral prayer for a deceased Muslim. If enough people attend the funeral prayer, the obligation is fulfilled for the entire community. However, if no one performs the funeral prayer, the entire community bears the sin of neglecting this duty.
  2. Defending the Muslim Lands: Protecting the Muslim lands and defending them against external aggression is a communal obligation. If a group of Muslims takes up arms to defend the community, the obligation is fulfilled for the entire community. However, if no one comes forward to defend the lands, the entire community shares the responsibility.
  3. Seeking Knowledge: Acquiring and disseminating Islamic knowledge is a communal obligation. While it is not necessary for every individual to become a scholar, there should be a sufficient number of people within the community who possess knowledge and can teach others. If enough individuals undertake the task of seeking knowledge, the obligation is fulfilled for the community as a whole.
  4. Providing Public Services: Ensuring the provision of essential public services such as education, healthcare, and infrastructure is a communal obligation. If enough resources are allocated and efforts made to provide these services, the obligation is considered fulfilled for the community. However, if these services are neglected, the entire community shares the responsibility.

According to Object

  • Fard Muayyan (specified obligation)
  • Fard Mukhayyar (optional obligation)

Classification according to "fard muayyan" refers to obligations that are specified by Allah with specific requirements or conditions, leaving no room for personal interpretation or discretion. Here are examples of obligations falling under the classification of fard muayyan:

  1. Number of Rakahs in Prayers: The specific number of units (Rakahs) in each of the five daily prayers (Salah) is a fard muayyan obligation. For example, Fajr prayer consists of two Rakahs, Dhuhr consists of four Rakahs, Asr consists of four Rakahs, Maghrib consists of three Rakahs, and Isha consists of four Rakahs.
  2. Amount of Zakat: The specific percentage of wealth to be given as Zakat (almsgiving) is a fard muayyan obligation. For example, Zakat is obligatory on wealth that meets or exceeds the Nisab threshold, and the rate of Zakat is fixed at 2.5% of the total eligible wealth.
  3. Duration of Fasting in Ramadan: The specific duration and rules of fasting during the month of Ramadan are fard muayyan obligations. Muslims are required to fast from dawn until sunset, abstaining from food, drink, and other worldly desires throughout the daylight hours of Ramadan.
  4. Performance of Hajj: The specific rituals and requirements of performing the pilgrimage to Mecca (Hajj) are fard muayyan obligations. These include specific acts such as Tawaf (circumambulation), Sa'i (ritual walking), standing at Arafat, and other prescribed rituals performed during the Hajj pilgrimage.
  5. Payment of Fidyah or Kaffarah: In cases where a person is unable to fulfill certain obligations such as fasting or fulfilling an oath, the specific requirements for offering Fidyah (compensation) or Kaffarah (expiation) are fard muayyan obligations. For example, offering Fidyah for missed fasts may involve feeding a certain number of needy people for each missed fast.

Classification according to "fard mukhayyar" refers to obligations that offer some degree of choice or options in their fulfillment. Unlike fard muayyan, which are obligations with specific and unalterable requirements, fard mukhayyar obligations provide flexibility in how they can be discharged.

Allah said: Allah will not call you to account for your thoughtless oaths, but He will hold you accountable for deliberate oaths. The penalty for a broken oath is to feed ten poor people from what you normally feed your own family, or to clothe them, or to free a bondsperson. But if none of this is affordable, then you must fast three days. (Quran 5:89)

Here are examples of obligations falling under the classification of fard mukhayyar:

  1. Expiation for Breaking Oaths (Kaffarah): If a Muslim breaks an oath, they have options for expiation (kaffarah). The specific options for expiation include feeding a certain number of needy people, clothing them, or freeing a slave. This allows individuals to choose the method of expiation that is most feasible or appropriate for their circumstances.

A recommended act whose performance is rewarded and whose nonperformance is not punished

"Mandoob" refers to acts which the Lawgiver (Allah) has recommended an act without making it compulsory. Other names of Mandoob are: Mustahabb, Sunnah, Nafl, etc. These acts carry rewards and benefits for those who perform them, but omitting them does not incur sin or punishment. Mandoob acts are considered voluntary acts of worship that Muslims engage in to earn additional blessings and draw closer to Allah.

Here are the types of mandoob acts with examples:

  1. Sunnah Mu'akkadah (Emphasized Sunnah):
    These are voluntary acts of worship that the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) consistently performed and strongly encouraged.

    Examples include:
      • Offering the Sunnah prayers of Fajr and Sunan Rawatib.
      • Sunan Rawatib, or the Rawatib prayers They consist of twelve rak'ahs spread across different times of the day: two before Fajr, four before Dhuhr, two after Dhuhr, two after Maghrib, and two after 'Isha prayers.
      • Performing Witr prayer regularly.
  2. Sunnah Ghair Mu'akkadah (Non-emphasized Sunnah):
    These are voluntary acts of worship that the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) performed occasionally but not persistently.

    Examples include: Sunnah prayers before Asr and Isha.

3) Haraam (Prohibited)

A prohibited act whose non-performance is rewarded and whose performance is punished.

Haram refers to actions that are prohibited by Allah and are to be avoided under all circumstances. It's a command from the lawgiver to stay away from certain acts, with clear and binding terms. Denial of haram leads to major disbelief (kufr). Various expressions in the Quran and Hadith indicate what is haram, such as explicit statements from Allah or the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) forbidding certain actions, commands to avoid certain acts, or warnings of punishment for engaging in specific behaviors. Examples include consuming alcohol, gambling, and unlawful appropriation of wealth, among others.

Expressions to Haraam

There are several expressions used to indicate that something is considered "haraam" (forbidden) in Islam. Here are the expressions along with their examples:

  1. Explicit Command (Allah or Prophet (ﷺ)  mentions in explicit terms that the act is Haraam): This expression involves a direct and explicit prohibition from Allah or the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). For example, Allah explicitly forbids the consumption of certain items in the Quran, such as carrion (dead meat), blood, and the flesh of swine.

    Prohibited for you are: carrion, blood, the flesh of swine (Quran 5:3)

    Prohibited for you are your mothers, your daughters, your sisters, your paternal aunts, your maternal aunts…. (Quran 4:23)

  2. Prohibition Mentioned (Allah or Prophet (ﷺ)  mentions that it is not Halal (permissible)): In this expression, Allah or the Prophet states that something is not permissible or is prohibited. An example is when Allah forbids forcibly taking women as inheritance in the Quran.

    O you who believe, it is not permissible for you that you should forcibly take women as inheritance.(Quran 4:19)

    Ibn Abbas said regarding this ayah: The custom (in Jahiliyyah) was that if a man died, his relatives used to have the right to inherit his wife, and if one of them wished, he could marry her, or they could marry her to somebody else, or prevent her from marrying if they wished, for they had more right to dispose of her than her own relatives. Therefore this Verse was revealed concerning this matter. (Saheeh Bukhari no. 6948)
  3. Command to Avoid (Allah or Prophet (ﷺ)  asked us to avoid it): This expression involves Allah or the Prophet instructing believers to avoid certain actions. For instance, Allah commands believers to avoid intoxicants, gambling, altars, and divining arrows in Surah Al-Maidah.

    O believers! Intoxicants, gambling, altars, and divining arrows are all evil of Satan’s handiwork. So avoid them so you may be successful.(Quran 5:90)
    Divining arrows were sticks that were used during the Jaahiliyyah. On one was written “Do it” and on another was written “Do not do it”, and on a third was written “Neither”. al-Furooq (4/240)

    Altar: Raised structure or place used for sacrifice, worship, or prayer. (Britannica)
  4. Warning of Punishment (Allah or Prophet (ﷺ)  regulates punishment): When Allah or the Prophet warns of punishment for engaging in certain actions, it indicates that those actions are haram. For example, Allah warns of punishment for those who unjustly consume the property of orphans in Surah An-Nisa.

    Indeed, those who unjustly consume orphans’ wealth ˹in fact˺ consume nothing but fire into their bellies.(Quran 4:10)

Types of Haraam

The types of Haram are classified into two categories:

1) Haram Li-Dhatihi:

  • This refers to actions that are inherently forbidden in Islam.
  • Example: Theft, unlawful sexual intercourse, murder, and consuming the meat of dead animals.
  • Classification: These actions are considered Haram regardless of the circumstances, and committing them constitutes a sin. It is only permissible if one is under compulsion. Eg: It is permissible to eat dead meat or pork if one has no option or one is under duress to save his/her life.

2) Haram Li-Ghayrihi:

  • This category includes actions that are not inherently Haram but become forbidden due to external factors or specific circumstances.
  • Classification: These actions are not inherently forbidden but become Haram due to external factors, intentions, or specific situations. They are prohibited to maintain justice, fairness, and ethical conduct in society.

Example 1: Proposing to a woman who is already engaged, even though marriage itself is permissible.

Allah's Messenger ﷺ  said: One should not try to cancel a bargain already agreed upon between some other persons (by offering a bigger price). And a man should not ask for the hand of a girl who is already engaged to his Muslim brother, unless the first suitor gives her up, or allows him to ask for her hand. (Saheeh Bukhari no. 5142)

*Transaction in itself = allowed  *Proposing girl in itself = allowed

Example 2: Engaging in a transaction where one tries to cancel a deal already agreed upon by offering a bigger price.

Example 3: Marrying a woman with the intention of making her lawful for her former husband (Nikah Tahlil or Halala), even though marriage itself is permissible.

Prophet ﷺsaid: Curse be upon the one who marries a divorced woman with the intention of making her lawful for her former husband and upon the one for whom she is made lawful. (Sunan Abu Dawood no. 2076, authentic)

4) Makrooh (Detested)

A disliked act whose non-performance is rewarded and whose performance is not punished.

Makrooh actions are those that the lawgiver, Allah, has advised believers to avoid, though not in absolute terms. Performing Makrooh actions does not result in punishment, but it is better to refrain from them due to their disapproval in Islam.

Example of Makrooh Actions:

  • Women following funeral processions: While not explicitly forbidden, women accompanying funeral processions is discouraged, as mentioned in a Hadith narrated by Umm Atiyah.

    Narrated Umm Atiyya: We were prevented to accompany funeral processions but it wasn’t made binding on us. (Sahih al-Bukhari 1278)

Types of Makrooh (Hanafi madhab)

  • Overwhelming Majority of Scholars: According to most scholars, Makrooh does not have further classification and is considered a single category.
  • Hanafi Madhab: However, the Hanafi school of thought divides Makrooh into two categories:
    • Makrooh Tahreemi: Actions that are strongly discouraged and are nearly equivalent to Haram, but are not explicitly prohibited for its prohibition is not from the Quran or Mutawatir Hadith (reports that have been narrated by so many people at every level of transmission that there is no doubt about their authenticity). Instead, it is based on Ahad Hadith (reports that have been narrated by only a few people at each level of transmission). Because the evidence is not considered conclusive (Qat'i), Hanafi scholars classify it as Makrooh Tahreemi rather than Haram.
    • Makrooh Tanzeehi: Actions that are disliked but do not reach the level of Makrooh Tahreemi. These actions are discouraged but not as strongly as Makrooh Tahreemi.

This Hanafi distinction differs from the majority of scholars who do not make such distinctions within the category of Makrooh. But this classification, which goes against the overwhelming majority of scholars, is based on something known as Mutawadir Ahad, and it originated with philosophers in the Mu'tazilah.

According to Jumhoor (majority) Makrooh Tahreemi is Haraam  

*Al-Mu’atazilah – The Mu’tazilah (from i’tazala, “to remove oneself” or “to withdraw”) is one of the deviant philosophical schools whose doctrines were affected by Greek philosophy. Originally the sect was established by Waasil Ibn ‘Ataa’ (80-131Hj/699-748 C.E.), who withdrew (i’tazala) from the circle of al-Hasan al-Basri (d.110Hj/728) because of his opposing view that the Muslim who commits a grave sin was neither a believer nor a kaafir , but somewhere between the two (manzilah baynal- manzilatayn ). This marked the beginning of this so-called rationalistic sect. In its early stages its concepts were close to those of the Khaarijites. In the third century of Hijrah, the Mu’tazilah became  influenced by the Shee’ah. The Mu’tazilites teachings were further developed under the influence of the Greek and Persian ideologies leading to the birth of ‘ilmul kalaam (scholastic theology).

5) Mubah (Permissible or Halal)

A permissible act whose performance is not rewarded and whose nonperformance is not punished, however intention can make it rewardable.

Mubah refers to actions or behaviors that are neither obligatory nor prohibited in Islam. The lawgiver (Allah) gave option between performing act or leaving it. These actions are considered permissible and do not carry any inherent moral judgment.

Expressions of Halal: Mubah actions can be divided into two categories:

1) Explicit Declaration: Allah or His Prophet explicitly states that something is Halal.

For example, in the Quran (5:5), Allah mentions: "Made lawful to you this day are At-Tayyibât [all kinds of Halâl (lawful) foods, which Allâh has made lawful (meat of slaughtered eatable animals, milk products, fats, vegetables and fruits)]. The food (slaughtered cattle, eatable animals) of the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians) is lawful to you and yours is lawful to them. (Lawful to you in marriage) are chaste women from the believers and chaste women from those who were given the Scripture (Jews and Christians) before your time when you have given their due Mahr (bridal-money given by the husband to his wife at the time of marriage), desiring chastity (i.e. taking them in legal wedlock) not committing illegal sexual intercourse, nor taking them as girl-friends. And whosoever disbelieves in Faith [i.e. in the Oneness of Allâh and in all the other Articles of Faith i.e. His (Allâh’s) Angels, His Holy Books, His Messengers, the Day of Resurrection and Al-Qadar (Divine Preordainments)], then fruitless is his work; and in the Hereafter he will be among the losers."

2) Absence of Blame: Allah or His Prophet mentions that there is no blame on individuals for engaging in a particular action, indicating its permissibility. An example is regarding subtly expressing interest in divorced or widowed women during their waiting period (Iddah), as stated in Sahih al-Bukhari.

There is no blame on you for subtly showing interest in ˹divorced or widowed˺ women or for hiding ˹the intention˺ in your hearts. Allah knows that you are considering them ˹for marriage˺. But do not make a secret commitment with them—you can only show interest in them appropriately. Do not commit to the bond of marriage until the waiting period expires. (Quran 2:235)


    • Engaging in recreational activities that do not involve any prohibited elements, such as hiking, swimming, or playing sports.
    • Choosing between various options in daily life, such as what to eat for a meal, which route to take while traveling, or what leisure activities to pursue, as long as they do not violate Islamic principles.


We've looked into what Hukm means. InshaAllah, our next post will delve into what Al-Hukm al-Wadhi means. If you have any questions regarding this series, or any feedback which you'd like to provide us, here is the link to reach out to us.

Usul Al Fiqh Questions
Questions regarding Usul Al Fiqh series mentioned here

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